The debate over "who's a journalist" is getting more urgent. Fortunately, the outlines of a definition are becoming clearer. Might some basic ethical tests help in further drawing the lines?
Once mainly a subject for navel-gazing at journalism conventions, the defining-a-journalist debate has now moved dramatically into the field of law. Most recently, the U.S. Senate has grappled with the question in drafting a media shield law to protect journalists' confidential sources.
The draft law's definition of a journalist echoes a clear new trend in describing what a journalist is. It moves away from the tradition of saying a journalist is someone linked to a traditional media organ
While miracles of modern medicine and brilliant pharmaceutical research have greatly improved quality of life and longevity, most of the time, these medicines are so expensive that a serious illness or accident can leave you quite broke! In such a situation, the increasing popularity of cheaper generic drugs among pharmacists is definitely something to smile about.
First, let us understand what generic drugs jobs in advertising are. When a new drug is developed by a pharmaceutical company, it is immediately patented. These patents, typically, last for about 20 years. Once the patent expires, other pharmaceutical companies can, with permission from FDA, market an equivalent of the formula under its chemical or "generic" name. The generic drug must undergo stringent testing and meet strict standards set up in order to receive FDA approval. In a nutshell, FDA makes very sure that while there may be cosmetic or minor differences, the generic drug has essentially the same active ingredients, strength and dosage, labeling, and so on.
Consequently, Generic Drugs provide the same medicine as their branded counterparts, produce the same results, give the same relief; but, at a significantly lower cost. Statistically, generic drugs have definitely come of age, and are positioned to get more popular with every year. Sale of Generic drugs has been increasing by over 10% every year and, today, approx. 56% of all prescriptions dispensed(more than one billion) are generic - that is a huge growth, by any count. Of the top five pharmaceutical companies in USA today, based on the number of prescriptions dispensed, four are generic drug manufacturers, namely Novartis, Teva, Mylan and Watson. Of the approx. 11,000 drugs listed with FDA, 8400 have generic counterparts.
On an average, Generic Drugs cost between 30 to 80% less than their branded counterparts, saving US consumers $8 to $10 billion each year (study done by Congressional Budget Office). In order to compare costs of a generic drug vs. its branded counterpart, let us consider Cialis, a prescription drug used to treat Erectile Dysfunction. A pack of 20 pills of Generic Cialis (chemical name Tadalafil) 20mg costs approx. $160. Brand Cialis, for the same pack and strength, costs approx. $270. With the same benefits and same availability, why wouldn't you opt for the cheaper generic version of Cialis?
With an estimated growth of 13% predicted for the year 2006, generic drugs are definitely here to stay. With the huge savings they provide with no compromise in quality, and their increasing popularity among pharmacists, Generic Drugs are perfectly positioned to dominate the pharmaceuticals market and overshadow their more expensive branded counterparts.
SAN DIEGO--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Mercury likely plays a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease
(AD), according to a review of relevant scientific literature published
this month in The Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. Dr. Joachim Mutter of
Germany, Dr. Richard Deth of the United States, and other esteemed
researchers collaborated on the groundbreaking article Does Inorganic
Mercury Play a Role in Alzheimer's Disease? A Systematic Review and an
Integrated Molecular Mechanism, which clarifies the need for
continuing research to understand the cause of neurological diseases
such as Alzheimer's.
The authors of the review us
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A new study suggests that invasive procedures are not necessarily the only options for treating pseudogynecomastia.
Traditionally, pseudogynecomastia male breast enlargement due to excess subareolar fat is treated with either liposuction or surgical excision, or a combination of the two. According to 2014 statistics from the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, treatment of pseudogynecomastia or gynecomastia is the third or fourth most common cosmetic procedure performed on men.
The new study touts cryolipolysis as a viable, effective treatment that has the benefit of being non-invasive. The study enrolled 21 men with pseudogynecomastia. They received an initial treatment consisting of a 60-minute cryolipolysis cycle, followed by a two-minute massage and a second 60-minute cycle with 50% treatment area overlap. At 60-day follow-up, patients received a second 60-minute treatment. Safety was evaluated by monitoring side effects and adverse events. Efficacy was assessed by ultrasound, clinical photographs and patient surveys.
Related: Bodybuilders and breast reduction: The optimal surgical approach
Surveys reported 95% of patients had improved visual appearance, while 89% experienced a reduction in embarrassment associated with pseudogynecomastia. Ultrasound showed a mean fat-layer reduction of 1.6 1.2 mm. Blinded reviewers correctly identified 82% of baseline photographs. Reported side effects included mild discomfort during treatment and transient paresthesia and tenderness. One case of paradoxical hyperplasia (PH) occurred.
Cryolipolysis, as used in this off-label indication during the study, is safe and effective for treating enlarged male breasts, study co-author Girish S. Munavalli, M.D., assistant professor of dermatology at Wake Forest University School of Medicine, tells Cosmetic Surgery Times. This is a non-invasive procedure which can be performed within a matter of hours, and results are seen as quickly as six to eight weeks. This study conclusively showed, with standardized photography and ultrasound measurements, that reduction in breast size is measurable and healthcare jobs for PR significant. Just as important, quality of life improves as a result of this treatment. This has profound effects on self-esteem and specifically allows men to feel better in certain types of clothing and in social settings http://www.psu.edu/healthcare such as the gym, pool and outdoors or exercise activities.
The study, which appears in the September issue of Dermatologic Surgery, was supported by a research grant from Zeltiq Aesthetics, manufacturer of the CoolSculpting System. Dr. Munavalli has been a consultant for Zeltiq.
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